But even earlier than that, children have the ability to pretend play. They pretend the sofa cushion is a cat and a toy brick is a train. When they engage in this make-believe, children usually don’t mistake it for reality, but understand perfectly well what is real and what is not. So it looks like even two-year-olds show highly developed cognitive skills in pretend play, such as the ability to distinguish between pretense and reality, and thus to adopt different perspectives about a situation. Plus, pretend play is a social phenomenon: children also pretend play with others. If someone pretends to pour tea into a child’s empty cup, the child may follow suit and pretend to drink from that cup. “This indicates that children are not only able to take alternative perspectives, but also to deduce another person’s perspective from their behavior and respond appropriately,” elaborates Julia Wolf.
But does that mean that children can attribute a mental state to others at such an early age? “In my opinion, it doesn’t,” concludes Julia Wolf. While pretend play requires children to share a common pretend perspective, it doesn’t require them to distinguish between their own perspective and that of another person. “If a child is pretending to be at a tea party with their father, they don’t need to distinguish between their own pretend perspective and their father’s,” points out the researcher. “Rather, the pretend perspective is shared. Thus, there’s no need to attribute mental states to another person.”
“Still, pretend play remains crucially important for theories on the development of social cognition,” says Wolf. It not only indicates that it is possible to take on another perspective in some contexts, but also that children are able to adopt a perspective that contradicts reality – contrary to what some other theories claim. Moreover, the fact that they are aware that what is pretended is not real indicates that they are also able to coordinate these different perspectives to a certain extent. “This suggests that much of the ability to adopt perspectives, which is necessary for social cognition and the attribution of mental states, is already present at an early childhood stage,” says Julia Wolf. “What we need to take into account, then, is: in what kind of context are the children embedded in, and to what extent can this context support the adoption of other perspectives?”
3 responses to “What pretend play tells us about social cognition”
Hi, Tony, I hope you are feeling well and getting the answers and information you need from the doctors. I look forward to reading your wonderful, informative posts in the coming year. I hope your recovery goes well! Hugs to you znd your four-legged buddy! Stay warm and Happy New Year!
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Thanks very much for your kind thoughts. I will get my latest ‘update’ on Jan 3 in a Zoom call. That’s when I find out if/when I will be having surgery … or what.
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Thanks, Tony! 🎄🌠